We offer evaluation and therapy services in the following areas:


Articulation refers to the pronunciation of speech sounds and overall clarity. Simple speech sounds such as ‘W’, ‘B’ and ‘P’ develop by the age of 3, while more complex sounds such as ‘R’ and ‘TH’ continue to emerge until a child reaches approximately the age of 8. Acquiring sounds can be difficult for some children. These sound errors can be heard as sound distortions, omissions or substitutions.  A speech-language pathologist can determine whether or not your child’s errors are age-appropriate or if they would benefit from therapy to help improve their clarity.

Expressive and Receptive Language

This refers to the ability to understand language (receptive skills) and communicate it verbally and in a meaningful way (expressive skills). Individuals with a wide range of needs may require language therapy. As children with language delays reach school-age years, they may face academic challenges; even children with mild impairments may have difficulty with higher-level language skills (i.e., inferencing, reasoning, summarizing, describing) as well as understanding vocabulary associated with various subjects such as math and science. Children with autism often require language therapy, as this is one of the primary impairments associated with the diagnosis.

Emergent Language

The clarity and content of a child’s speech and language continue to emerge until 3 (and beyond). If a child is not meeting their early language milestones or saying their first words, a speech-language pathologist can help rule out any other cause for this delay. Some children are “late talkers” and simply develop their expressive language skills at a slower rate than their peers. They may catch up without intervention, but can benefit from language stimulation as well as parent strategies provided by a speech-language pathologist.

Social Skills

Social skills, or pragmatics, encompass a wide range of verbal as well as non-verbal communication skills. Examples of social skills often targeted in therapy include eye contact, initiating conversation, joining into groups, reading body language and understanding the subtle nuances of language (i.e., humour and idioms). Children with autism often require social skills support and explicit instruction, as it is one of the primary impairments associated with the diagnosis.

Oral Motor Skills and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Our lips, tongue, jaw and palate (also known as our articulators) all require a great deal of strength, motion and coordination in order to produce speech. Weakness in the articulators, or poor coordination from the brain to the articulators, can cause a breakdown in clarity. A speech-language pathologist can assess whether or not there are any deficits or structural deviations interfering with functioning of oral motor mechanisms.


Fluency describes the smoothness of ones words during connected speech. Dysfluencies, also referred to as stutters, can be considered “typical” depending on the frequency and type. Many preschool-age children present with a sudden-onset of stuttering that may correct itself without intervention. A speech-language pathologist can determine whether your child requires intervention for their dysfluencies, depending on many factors such as frequency of occurrence, types of dysfluencies, and the presence of secondary characteristics. Common stutters indicative of a disorder include prolongations (i.e., “sssssock”), repetitions (i.e., “s-s-s-s-s-ock”) and blocks (i.e., “—–sock”).